148: JANUARY 3, 2016
305: January 6, 2019
Sweet sanitized Lectionary...skips verses 13-18
Epiphany used to be the second holiest day in the Christian year after Easter
traditionally was the only other day people were baptized
Dia del Reyes is still a HUGE holiday in many Spanish, Latin-American, and Hispanic cultures- great time to reach out to fellow Christians!
vv.13-18: your choice. A couple thoughts
Matthew begins “his argument” that Jesus is the new Moses. Just as Moses “saved” the people by leading them out of Egypt, so Jesus will “save” us from leading us out of sin
Herod = Pharoah - both attempt to circumvent God’s plan, both think they have the power over life and death, but that is God’s power alone
small comfort to the parents of the murdered children
Don’t tie this up with a nice neat bow.
God is at work in the world despite the true evil that exists
God does not guarantee that bad things and evil will not happen, but does promise that we do not walk through life’s dark valley’s alone
God is not naive about the evils of the world- neither should we be
Separate Scripture from Myth
How many Magi were there? Doesn’t say
What were their names? Doesn’t say
Where are they from? “The East” - nothing more is known
Most of what we think we know about the “Three Kings” was added over 500 years after the birth of Jesus
most likely astrologers (possibly Zoroastrian)
Magi are mentioned in Acts (Acts 8, 13 and 19) in negative ways
Very unlikely this is a historical event- but instead is a symbolic event characterizing the promise in Jesus for ALL people including gentiles.
Unknown what exactly may have caused the astrological event
Lot of possibilities - it may or may not have happened
Mentioned by Ignatius of Antioch in his letter to the Ephesians, but connects it with a condemnation of Magi and magic which signifies that Ignatius may not have been familiar with Matthew’s gospel (Robert Miller, Born Divine: The Births of Jesus and the Other Sons of God p. 103)
A Messianic star is mentioned in Balaam’s prophecy in Numbers (Number 24:17) and Balaam was a foreign seer or Magi from the East
Star or Comet?
Could have been either
Comets were seen as signs of the Heavens picking a new ruler: Very Roman and Hellenistic - many of the Roman emperor’s births were heralded by comets: Augustus Caesar, Nero
The Wise Men have no idea where to go until Herod tells them the scripture the priests related to him
They visit the house of Mary and Joseph in Bethlehem...not a stable
In Matthew Jesus is a King, not a poor baby born in a stable
The royal family lives in Bethlehem to begin with and only go to Nazareth after returning from Egypt
Kingly gifts- expensive luxury items
The foreign gentiles immediately recognize Jesus as the son of God and “King of Kings” and bring his gifts accordingly
King Seleucus II Callinicus offered gold, frankincense and myrrh to Apollo at the Miletus temple in 243 BC
Myrrh - an embalming oil and foreshadowing of his death (see John 19:39 and Mark 15:23)
Frankincense - Priestly incense used in rituals
Gold - sign of kingship
Origen in Contra Celsum: "gold, as to a king; myrrh, as to one who was mortal; and incense, as to a God."
What do we do with these “facts”?
Capture the sense of wonder and mystery:
When I heard the learn'd astronomer, When the proofs, the figures, were ranged in columns before me, When I was shown the charts and diagrams, to add, divide, and measure them, When I sitting heard the astronomer where he lectured with much applause in the lecture-room, How soon unaccountable I became tired and sick, Till rising and gliding out I wander'd off by myself, In the mystical moist night-air, and from time to time, Look'd up in perfect silence at the stars.
Where is the truth?
Jesus’ birth is of cosmic and astronomical importance for ALL people
Jesus is a king (but not the King we expect- as foreshadowed by the Myrrh)
Jesus is a priest (but not the one we expect who answers to Kings like Herod)
Jesus’ birth is good news for all who wish to participate in God’s radically inclusive love and grace, but is not good news for those who desire power over and against others (just as the Exodus is good news, but not for Pharaoh who rejects God’s invitation to be an agent of grace)
Thoughts and Questions
This is not a historical story - but a tale of the cosmic influence of Jesus’ birth. It is improbable and ridiculous that wise magicians from a foreign land would travel to Jerusalem only to learn of their destination from one who wants to kill the one they seek and then to bring this boy, born in some dusty backwater gifts fit for a king. It is absurd.
SPOILER ALERT: it is only going to get more absurd from here (the poor will be blessed, the last will be first and the son of God will be nailed to a cross)
Epiphany is something that is revealed, an “A-Ha Moment”
This text leans on this ‘other’ meaning of Epiphany. In Jesus, something secret has been revealed.
Connects to Isaiah passage in a less on-the-nose manner than the gospel does. What was in the darkness is now in the light.
God’s salvation is universal - and “for the nations.”
This has always been the plan, but no one thought it would happen like this.
Ephesians is probably the most debated over authorship. Strong arguments made both ways
Whether or not it is actually Paul, it is meant to be attributed to Paul while in jail.
Most general of letters, without much personal detail or specific problems.
First half describes what Christ has done. Second half describes how people should live in response to Christ.
This passage is near the end of the first half. I comes very close to the pivotal “Therefore” of 4:1.
This is the great reveal of what Christ accomplished.
The “Secret” or “Mystery” is revealed to be the union of Jews and Gentiles
“For Paul, Epiphany is not just one day, but describes his entire life and calling. He preaches, and subsequently he has been imprisoned for this preaching, because God has revealed this mystery to him.” (Amy L.B. Peeler, Working Preacher)
The Great Secret that is Revealed:
V. 6 “This plan is that the Gentiles would be co-heirs and parts of the same body, and that they would share with the Jews in the promises of God in Christ Jesus through the gospel”
“The dramatic account of the hidden mystery enhances for the hearers, at least those of the first century, the sense that this new expansiveness was not some ad hoc decision, nor simply a strategy of marketing a good idea or opening up new possibilities to gain a larger following. It was large enough and significant enough to spoken of as a divine mystery. It belonged to divine wisdom. In other words it emerged from the very heart and being of God. It is, thus, a way of doing theology in the strictest sense. It is saying: from God's own being there issues an expansive love which crosses every barrier of discrimination.” (William Loader)
Paul’s self-deprecation is grounded in his own personal history. It is also used to further glorify God, that such a lowly servant would be used.
Do we have a similar sense of call?
The cosmic nature of this passage is difficult.
“These verses are full of language, concepts, and imagery that are difficult to hold together in a realistic manner and still more troublesome to preach. They savor a first-century worldview not shared by our technological and empirical age. Yet they do speak to a basic human situation, provided we lay hold of the master theme, namely, the announcement that in the church… there is no reason to fear those alien forces of fate and determinism which haunted the Greco-Roman world and still retain their grip on our society.” (Ralph Martin, Interpretation, p. 43-44)
Thoughts and Questions
“The great celebration of the Incarnation, according to Paul, flows into the great celebration of the church. As we exhibit unity -- of different races, classes, and genders (as Paul says in Galatians 3:28) -- we display the mystery of God who brings all his creation together in the unity of the God-man, the Jewish baby worshiped by the Gentile kings from the East.” (Amy L.B. Peeler, Working Preacher)
“The trustworthiness of God over time, experienced and enacted in ways that could not be predicted or anticipated. The generosity of God in giving, giving, giving for enlightenment, discernment, hope, confidence. The commitment of God to create reliable leaders and re-create us as bold speakers of the truth. The call of God’s people to find a way to utter those promises of inclusion, belonging, and the ongoing passion of the creator for the creation. The presence of Christ and the reality of a savior crucified and raised (note those passive verbs), who with the spirit shapes and empowers life throughout the cosmos. The reality that even our call to speak truth to power is a humble calling, for all is not yet clear or settled in such a way that any of us can know for certain.” (Sarah Henrich, Working Preacher)
If you’re tired of the wise men, dabble in Isaiah.
This reading can stand alone, or as a complement to the Epiphany story. Clearly, the theme of “Nations will come to your light and kings to your dawning radiance” fits with the epiphany story.
Literary Context (Christopher Seitz, New Interpreter’s Bible, v. IV, p. 504-5)
Part of what some call Trito Isaiah of chapters 56-66, but Christopher Seitz argues against calling this section separate.
“Material in these three chapters [60-62], are thought to involve, ‘salvation, and nothing but salvation.’”
“Chapter 60 keeps at its focus the city of Zion. It is not concerned as much with Zion’s present inhabitants as with the nations and with Zion’s children who have yet to be gathered.”
“I regard it as probably that the voice that speaks up in chaps 60-61 is indeed the voice of the prophet at work in the literature thus far. We view him here, as in 54-59, as a servant follower of the martyred servant of 52-53.”
Previous chapters are about the suffering servant. Some point this section to be about Israel as a whole, some about Zion, some about a particular person. This reading wraps up the section about the servant and the beginning of the redemption.
“What occurs is the coalescing of various themes introduced in the discourse of the servant”
Whose light is it anyway?
Ambiguous your/for reflected in NRSV and CEB translations
NRSV: Arise, shine; for your light has come, and the glory of the Lord has risen upon you.
CEB: Arise! Shine! Your light has come; the LORD's glory has shone upon you.
Is the light God or is the light Israel?
“The words are wondrously and deliberately ambiguous. ‘Your light’ is in fact Yahweh, who is Israel’s only source of hope and possibility. At the same time, however, ‘your light’ refers to Israel’s own ‘glow,’ which is a gift of Yahweh that changes the very character of Israel. Thus ‘your light’ is both intrusion from Yahweh and restored Israel.” (James Newsome, Texts for Preaching, Year C, p. 85, emphasis is the author’s).
Much of Isaiah has been concerned with the darkness that is Israel. Darkness that comes from injustice. But now there is light.
Israel as magnet
Return of the exiles, but more...
Recalls promise of Abraham, that his family will be a blessing to all nations.
Many people see/saw America as this light in the new world. A place where people could pursue justice and peace. Is this still the case? Was it ever?
Statue of Liberty
“Something new is happening that Israel could not have expected or believed. When Israel finally lifts its eyes from its despair, it will not believe what it sees! There is a huge procession from all over the known world” (Newsome, p. 85)
Field of Dreams - If you build it, they will come. End scene, and the field that exists still.
Cuts out verse 7, where God declares that the offerings will “be accepted on my altar, and I will glorify my splendid house.” This is quite the departure/turnaround from chapter 1. Isaiah opens with the declaration that God no longer wants offerings and hates the people’s festivals.
Thoughts and Questions
God is the source of the light. The light is reflected by Israel, but the light also changes Israel. All the nations are drawn to the light, both the light of God, and the light that has transformed Zion
This can easily be seen as a Christmas story.
The light has come through in the darkness that is both the light of Christ and the light that transforms his followers.
Who is drawn to our Christmas light? Is the light coming from our fancy gifts, programs, children’s pageants. Or is the light coming from a community of people transformed by the grace of God?
Thanks to our Psalms correspondent, Richard Bruxvoort Colligan (psalmimmersion.com,@pomopsalmist). Thank you to Scott Fletcher for our voice bumpers, Dick Dale and the Del Tones for our Theme music (“Misirlou”), Nicolai Heidlas (“Sunday Morning”,"Real Ride"and“Summertime”) and Bryan Odeen for our closing music.